Saturday, December 7, 2019
For many the reading of Macbeth portrays a pretty straight forward plot, a wholesome man is unwittingly corrupted and must pay for his crimes. The issue with this assertion is that nothing is as it seems in the world of the English language. This is even more evident when Shakespeare is involved. Interestingly, Macbeth was written for a new king who hailed from the great rolling hills of Scotland. Shakespeare had an obligation to please the most recent man in charge. Another assumption can be made that, because of the new kingÃ¢â¬â¢s origins, the sole purpose of the play was to highlight Scotland in favor of the king. The more widely accepted objective of Macbeth is a matter of opinion and state of mind, based upon the reader, and will allow interpretation to be had in many different ideals. Chicago UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Shakespearean scholar, David Bevington is one that has read and studied Macbeth. Coming to his own conclusion, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Macbeth is NOT a conventional morality play and it is NOT concerned primarily with preaching against sinfulness or demonstrating that Macbeth is finally damned for what he does. Ã¢â¬ It is not precise to simply say that Mr. Bevington is wrong, because to each reader, parts of Macbeth could reveal another way of imagining the actions taken. Macbeth is a morality play as well as a myriad of meanings, based on each personÃ¢â¬â¢s moral value, its characters coinciding, creating a lust for power, and forcing a reality check in the deathly collection for wrong doings, but also that the values and the morality of the reader are brought into question. The most obvious way that Shakespeare presents a struggle with morality in Macbeth is through the disintegration of the main character, Macbeth. As the reader enters the story, the very first scene paints a picture of valor and loyalty; all attributes are pertaining to Macbeth. At this point the reader is led to believe that this new Macbeth character must be a great guy. However, when the first and last scenes are read one after the other, it is clear that there is in fact, a morality change within this one character. Slowly, as the story progresses it is easy to see the way that this particular character is metaphorically warped and disfigured. The straw that broke that back of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s masochistic camel was the three weird sisters foretelling the fate of Macbeth. This one act created a chain effect that heads off the shattering of multiple personas, including his wife, Lady Macbeth. Macbeth truly takes his own values for a spin when he decides that the crown shall undoubtedly be his. This prompts him to not only kill Duncan but massacre the Macduff family as well. This kind of act does not happen accidently. It occurs because of the orders of a person who has been affected in a certain way. Seeing as Macbeth begins the story as a patriot to his king, it is rational to state that his personal psyche, as well as his values, and ultimately, his morality, has been compromised. It is obvious that Macbeth begins as a Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ guy and slowly declines. To mirror this and add to the drama of the play, his wife, Lady Macbeth, begins as a corrupted and manipulating instigator to the crimes Macbeth commits. As the play draws close to the end, Lady Macbeth begins to switch places with her husband and is haunted by the horror she helped create, prompting her untimely, self-inflicted death. The drastic way that the two main characters, Lady Macbeth and Macbeth, inevitably trade places, both beginning the story as opposite personalities and ending the play by having taken each othersÃ¢â¬â¢ personas, demonstrates a compromise of judgment and system of beliefs for the two. This Ã¢â¬Å"good guyÃ¢â¬ manner that Macbeth disregards so quickly never truly leaves him. On the contrary, it is that fundamental component that will eventually lead to his final realization before death (Warren). The fight between good and evil throughout the play is a battle that each character must enter, and not all leave as victors. In Macbeth, the lines between right and wrong are skewed and blurred taking many of the choices made into an unmanageable grey area. Shakespeare navigates his characters through this mist with a poisonous concoction that all of human kind has wrestled with since the dawn of time- their conscience. For Macbeth, his conscience was not a little cricket that sat on his shoulder telling him what would and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make his nose grow. It was a very faint sickness that metastasized into a malignant cancer burning him from the inside out by the closing act. Macbeth is bursting at the seams with the blatant contradictions of good and evil. He desires what he can gain from acts of brutality, but initially hesitates to commit them himself. In an essay written about the duality of this play, it is stated that by the playÃ¢â¬â¢s end he has not so much overcome this hesitation than he has utterly destroyed the emotions which drive it in the first place. In a sense, Shakespeare has made it so that the true tragedy of the play is not the death of individuals, but the decaying of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s humanity; his slow decline into becoming little more than a mechanical warrior. What drives him to this devastating end is his failure to win the battle raging within himself. In this play, Macbeth has every intention of committing these evil deeds and not thinking twice, but is fraught over the actual physical act of it. He is a true killer, and at the same time, is fully aware of his actions- at times horrified by them. Ã¢â¬Å"I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent, but only vaulting ambition which oÃ¢â¬â¢er leaps itself and falls upon the otherÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare). It is clear that Shakespeare has every intention of exposing the fact that Macbeth is fighting his own humanity and depravity. The conflict depicted here is a huge factor that drives the play Macbeth and results in many of the deaths that are sure to have catastrophic consequences (Evangelista). Macbeth let his mind be subject to the torment of his twisted conscience, as well as his own warped image of himself beginning with this good guy persona and ending on a much lower note. With all of this in his past, in the closing act what does Macbeth have to depend on? What can he depend on now that he has made so many enemies? These questions are the assumed inquisitions running through MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s head as he finally realizes his own mortality. The way that Macbeth has gone, letting his own self-image be sculpted by the witchesÃ¢â¬â¢ prophecy, has led him to the universal conclusion that evil will have to face consequences sooner or later. An example of Macbeth first coming to terms with this inevitable fact is at dinner when he sees the ghost of Banquo. Macbeth is getting inside his own head and allowing the guilt, that he has so far not shown, come slightly into the light for the reader to see. The death of Lady Macbeth is another prime example of evil being brought to a Shakespearean adaptation of justice. The pride that is deeply instilled in both Macbeth and his wife takes precedence when weighing out their next moves. The problem, being their pride, cannot withstand the universal fate of all evil being vanquished by good. Just as Adam and Eve were too engrossed by the forbidden fruit- Adam being too cowardly to see it is wrong and Eve being very persuasive; they ate, and for a moment, were content until GodÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath rained upon them (Louise). When Lady Macbeth and her husband heard of the prophecy it was as if they were hearing of the forbidden fruit. It is the human disposition to be manipulated and thwarted by those close to us, with the intention of some kind of personal gain, the result of this usually being a downfall of some kind. Even though many are not restricted by the evil category their actions do not bid well. It is seen time and time again- first in the Bible, and again in other works, such as The Odyssey and Oedipus Rex. Through trial and error humanity has shown that evil will fall at the feet of good, and yet it does not inhibit pursuing those vices (Ã¢â¬Å"StudyMacbeth). Even though the human race is able to see the triumph that prevails when one chooses good over evil, the appeal of defiance is hard to ignore. Ambition and power are two such considerable deviances that, in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s case, enhance the call by adding finesse and valor to the idea of disobedience. Climbing to the top is not easy. Furthermore making friends in the process is unusual and can slow the rise to power. In Macbeth, the lure of becoming the next king of Scotland is too much of a prize to cast off as a simple mistake made by three sisters. The three sisters were able to instill within Macbeth a yearning for a title he was not fit for. This is Shakespeare at his very finest, testing the morality of a man by tempting him with the promise of fame and fortune- another great downfall of this race. This man, Macbeth, starts out as such an amazing warrior, defending his country with pride. The promise of more is what draws him in, enticing his need to be the best and prompting him to take his unbound ambition to a level that was beyond any moral standard ever set. Macbeth and his wife share in the need to be great and powerful. Due to this, they will both sacrifice their morality to achieve that. When comparing these two characters with others in the play, such as Macduff, who also aspires to be a leader of power, but does not allow for his heart to become infected with ambition, and instead aims for honor, the corruption of naked ambition is shown. Without any kind of moral or social conscience this type of authority can take over a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and in Macbeth, that kind of unchecked command is exactly what causes his demise (Leeland). MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall is not based solely upon one failing attribute that he possesses. It is a combination of all of the corruption and lies he allows to infiltrate his mind. When it truly comes down to it, is it Shakespeare trying to portray Macbeth dying as justification for all of these short comings? An important issue, that is to be made by Macbeth, is the idea that because he was such a horrible person, his death, and that of his wife, is justified. Malcolm takes the throne; all is well. This assumption is based upon the initial validity of good being the way of God and evil being punishable with death. The way that Shakespeare incorporates MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s death into the ideals of Ã¢â¬Å"just dessertsÃ¢â¬ is somewhat skewed by many readers. Is MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s death a finality that closes the door for this kind of corruption to again take over Scotland? Macbeth justified his own killings by calling on the ideal of the greater good when truly he was acting upon his own selfish ambition. Due to MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability, image of himself wearing the crown, he was able to commit such acts as killing a loyal friend and a family of innocents. All of these crimes that have been committed by Macbeth go unchecked, and he is able to ascend to the throne without one man seeking justice with his blood. However, Macbeth does indeed meet his own demise, and it is this fact that draws into question the morality of the entire play. Throughout the pages it is obvious that Macbeth is a Ã¢â¬Å"bad guyÃ¢â¬ , and the need to vanquish him is noble and understandable considering what he has inflicted. It is here that morality takes an unexpected turn taking the reader on a quest of their own. Even though Macbeth has committed heinous acts, does the death of Macbeth put all of that to rest? It is the classic problem of the value of human life. For humans, it is natural to see somebody and measure them up. Yet that kind of judgment rarely extends to the death penalty. The call for life or death is thought to be made from a higher place, usually spiritual. For all intents and purposes, however, Shakespeare leaves this moral conundrum up to his readers/viewers. Along with the choice of taking a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life also comes the justification of their death. With the morality question of Macbeth needing to die or not pushed to the side, the problem of postmortem exoneration arises. The death of Duncan and the Macduff family can be absolved, assuming their murder joins them in the after life. Still more conflict is brought into perspective by calling into question the kind of person that would wish death upon another human being for personal satisfaction. A rational way of reasoning with the death of Macbeth would be allowing Malcolm to rise to the throne in the rightful place of his father. This being the case, there is still the fact of Fleance being able to recreate the horrors executed by Macbeth himself. The death of Macbeth gives way the second part of the witchesÃ¢â¬â¢ prophecy, and allows the reader to make the assumption that MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s departure was little more than a slight intermission (Jaffa). With almost everything, from MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s murders to his own death, brought to question by individual morals and values, it is hard to see any other purpose in the play of Macbeth. If not the question of morality and human nature coming to a head, then what could be ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s true meaning? From past experience with Shakespeare it is easy to pull up almost any underlying factor, but for all intents and purposes the biggest allusion that can be seen, other than morality, is that of fate. The three weird sisters are witches that toy with Macbeth, but ultimately seal his doom in telling him about the crown. The fight between fate and free will in Macbeth is one alternative to questioning morality. Shakespeare left the readers of his play to decipher the line between what is destined for Macbeth and what he has inflicted upon himself. The play pits the prophecies of the three weird sisters against its own dramatization of Macbeths internal conflictÃ¢â¬âand its not clear which wins. In fact, fate and free will might just be working together (Future). Macbeth is not only a morality play within its own pages, by affecting its characters conscience, creating a lust for power, and forcing a reality check in the deathly collection for wrong doings, but also that the values and the morality of the reader are brought into question. Starting off as a man of valor and bravery, and slowly disintegrating into the mess of a man he is by the end of the play, goes to show that morals and values will be comprised by even the best of man. Macbeth suffers a downfall the likes that have never been seen before or since, and it is hard to argue that morality played a key part. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions with Macbeth may not be crystal clear. Some could argue that fate is the objective of the script, but main objective or not, the principle of morality was a factor questioned time and time again.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Pollution In Europe Water Pollution in Europe Table of Contents Pages 1 Introduction Pros/Cons 2 European/Citizens Europe's Proposal For Good waters by 2010 3. Europe's Surface Water Europe's Ground Water 4. The Water Frame Work Directive Penalties Waste Advice 5. Solutions to save Europe Waterways Conclusion 6. Bibliography Introduction Water pollution is a problem that effects all living things. Every living organism on earth requires water to survive. When the water is polluted, it not only effects the plants, insects, and animals, it harms people. Taking care of this planet's water is vital to the short term and long term survival of the living things that inhabit the earth. The oceans, lakes, and streams are constantly polluted by individuals and many industries. These waters must be cleaned up before the costs are way beyond money and the damage way beyond repair. Action to clean up the Earth's precious water supply is long over due. Governments, as well as the individual, in all countries must begin to take action. Plans must be made to rid the waters of pollution, and prevent any further destruction of the one and only source of water that Earth has. Governments need to develop policies and regulations to stop the passage of pollutants into the water. The individual must take their own action. Using products that do not cause harm to the ocean, disposing of harmful products, and pushing the government to take action against water pollution are not only the rights of the individual, but the obligations of the individual. The action taken now will not only make the planet safer and cleaner for the present, but for generations to come. Pros The pros to saving the ocean are far greater than any cons someone might come up with. One of the obvious pros is that cleaning up the ocean means a healthier planet. Contaminating the oceans also contaminates our food supply. Having healthier seafood makes for healthier people. Cleaning up and taking care of the oceans gives people a good place for recreation. The process of cleaning up and monitoring the oceans will provide many new job opportunities. Action to take clean the ocean may sound expensive, but it will be cheaper in the long run. If the world waits to long to take action, then the costs to clean up the ocean could be enormous. Letting the oceans reach dangerous levels of contamination will for sure cost even more money. Cons The biggest con in the struggle to save the ocean is cost. The cost to create action plans for saving the ocean will most definitely be high. Many people might feel that there are more important things to take care of right now. The oceans do not appear to be under immediate threat. The plan to clean up the oceans will also be an inconvenience to many. Industries will have to hire engineers to develop cleaner methods of use and disposal of harmful substances. Cleaner methods of disposal are usually more expensive. Many smaller companies may go out of business due to rising costs of production and disposal. Farmers will have to resort to other chemicals for pesticides and fertilizers that may not be as effective. The farmer may lose money in taking action to prevent runoff. The consumer will probably have to pay more for products that are environmentally sound. The government will have to hire people to enforce the new legislation. 1 European Citizens Europe's citizens are increasingly demanding cleaner water, cleaner water for drinking, cleaner water for bathing, cleaner water as part of their environment, and their local and regional heritage. The increasing demand by citizens and environmental organisations for cleaner rivers and lakes, groundwater and coastal beaches is evident. This demand by citizens is one of the main reasons why the Commission has made water protection one of the priorities of its work. A new European Water Policy will have to get polluted waters clean again, and ensure clean waters are kept clean. In achieving these objectives, the roles of citizens and citizens' groups will be crucial. This is why a new European Water Policy has to get citizens more involved. . Good Waters by 2010 There are a number of objectives in respect of which the quality of water is protected. The key ones at European level are general protection of
Monday, November 25, 2019
Listening Assignments for brooklyn college 22 essays Organ Fugue in G Minor, J.S. Bach, p109-110 A highness in the pitch is the frequency in the vibrations are getting faster. A second tone is getting introduced, there is an interval between them. This second tone is low, as it gets louder the vibrations increase. It is the same tone in the first part, but the octave changes to low and high and the vibrations increase introducing other tones. In Class: The pitches of the melody are high, there are many pitches from low to high. There are three layers of pitches making every layer sound distinct. the music becomes more intense and it is like my adrenaline increasing to an intense point. Dynamics is soft (piano) and crescendo to forte and return to piano and it creates a sense of softness introducing the pure awakening of spring. There is a dynamic accent that is a forte, it comes at different times and it makes me nervous as if a tribal ritual will occur. The use of layers of soft and then loud creates a fore ground and background that gives me a very frightening feeling. Brass instruments but there is a back round of other instruments that are accompanying the piece of music. There is a contrast between the beginning, middle, and end of the song. It creates a mood that varies because of the dynamics. The brass instruments have a different tone color. They are loud and dominant. The woodwind instruments have a different effect then the brass instruments. When the brass comes in it changes our mood. The end of the song sounds scary but truly ends off with a happy ending. The Dynamics play a major role in the piece you hear, the pitch ranges in this song also the mood I feel listening to this is romantic and having a good time. However towards the end I feel a little tension and scared. There seems to be a contrast in the rhythm and beat over and over. I hear the piano in the beginning however at the middle I hear the sax and other instruments accompanying. Then all at once a...
Friday, November 22, 2019
The role of the U.S. Military in keeping internatinal peace - Essay Example To the extent that U.S. military force can enhance international stability and the durability of the types of legitimate governments that would address these issues seriously and effectively, it may have an important role to play. In dealing with the threat posed by tyrannies in Asian countries the United States attempts to promote strains within the patron-client relationship. Locally generated conflicts, or at least some types of these conflicts, can have severe security implications for states friendly to, or allied with, the United States and by indirect means for the United States itself (Sturkey20). Indeed, the US administration has highlighted the danger that such contingencies could pose to the United States when he cited the Iranian air attack on Kuwaiti oil fields as an example of the vulnerability of Persian Gulf facilities-notably those of Saudi Arabia-to sneak attack Other contingencies pose dangers that may not have evoked presidential comment, but are no less important for their latency. Not every local contingency can be expected to have the impact of the seizure of Abyssinia on the fortunes of the global balance, but indifference to anything other than the obvious threat could mistakenly be p erceived as impotence and lead to a concatenation of events climaxing in a conflict (Sturkey24). The history of US military peacekeeping operations goes back to the Cold War years and is closely connected with armed conflicts between nation-states. Following Zwanenburg (2005): 'A definition of' peacekeeping operations' by the UN in 199) reflects the main principles over the years, a peacekeeping operation has come to he defined as an operation involving military personnel" (17). Local contingencies may indeed involve full-scale wars between two states. The Iran-Iraq war, the Horn of Africa conflict, which lasted some nine months, and the shorter conflicts between Pakistan and India in 1971, between China and Vietnam and between the Yemens in 1979 all involved major force commitments between combatant states. At the other extreme, a local "contingency" might extend beyond the boundaries of the state in question. With the hindsight of a decade, one might classify the 1969 dethronement of King Idris of Libya as such an event. Less obvious, but potentially important for long-term U. S. influence in West Africa, might be the removal of the Tolbert regime by a previously obscure master sergeant named, appropriately enough, Doe. Falling between these extremes, with extremity defined by the level of armed force committed in each case, are various forms of popular uprisings against a government in power. Here a distinction might be made between relatively swift overthrow of government, notably coups and mass civilian revolts, and drawn-out guerrilla operations (Sturkey 32). Of the civilian revolts not directly involving the superpowers, by far the most serious for international stability was that which took place in Iran. The revolt against the shah clearly was locally inspired, though it was not immune from foreign (notably Soviet) encouragement. Popular feeling against the shah was manifest in a wide array of "disparate groups, classes and individuals" (Sturkey43). The
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
21st Century Women's Health Act of 2015 - Research Paper Example According to Senator Murray, women living in the US are at a precarious situation as far as their reproductive health is concerned. Regardless of the fact that Obamacare has significant increased access to affordable health services that are gender based, conservative politicians from the entire nation have been persistently campaigning at the state and federal level with the aim of overturning the law that safeguards the healthcare rights of women, and they have been successful in some occasions. She further states that there has been significant progress in regards to advancement of the health of women and expansion on access to reproductive care, but there is still a lot of work that has to be done since some of the elected officials are determined to reverse the laws already created. Therefore, it can be considered that the 21st Century WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Act proposes essential means of moving forward in regards to the health of women. This new law emphasis on a number of key aspects in terms of the health care of women including their maternity services, offering support for victims of rape and sexual assault, contraception, reproductive rights, abortion as well as preventive care. Eight months after she unsuccessfully attempted to override the decision of the US Supreme Court on contraceptive coverage, Senator Patty Murray came out with another proposal that sought to safeguard access to reproductive health services by women. This wide-ranging bill will obligate the state Medicaid programs to provide comprehensive coverage for all types of birth control, necessitate hospitals to avail free emergency contraception to sexually assaulted patients while at the same time ordering studies on the manner in which state enact laws to limit access to abortions as well as other family planning methods and services. This bill seeks to reverse the laws that are considered by Senator Murray to be taking the nation backwards and dealing with the officials who are
Monday, November 18, 2019
Executive Risk Assessment and PowerPoint Presentation (ERAP) Active Shooter Norfolk Naval Base Norfolk, Virginia - Essay Example This research paper sought to present executive risk assessment of a fatal shooting that took place at the Gallery at Military Circle Mall. In particular, the paper carefully examined how the Norfolk Police responded to the active shooting that occurred at the mall where one man succumbed to death two days after being shot on the leg. The paper found out that the Norfolk police were adequately prepared, responded to the shooting in good time and provided first aid to the injured man. The paper provide a broad range of recommendations that can be employed by Norfolk police in order to boost their preparedness, response and rescue process in case a similar active shooting happens in the nearest future. In February 2014, a shooting took place at the Gallery at Military Circle Mall. The incidence occurred on Friday afternoon at around 1.00 p.m. The shooting was ignited by an argument that took place between several men inside the Military Circle Mall (West, 2014). It was reported that one of the gunmen involved in the argument took out his gun and shot another man on the leg. The injured man, Mr. Nottingham Johnnie, 21, was transported to Sentara Norfolk General Hospital and his injury was considered non-life threatening and was later released. Unfortunately, Nottingham Johnnie died from gun injuries two days later. Soon after the police were informed of the shooting, they arrived at the scene of the crime at around 1.10 p.m. but the main suspect had already left. The police positioned themselves at every entrance of the mall in order to reduce more traffic going to the mall. They also closed the nearby street and started searching around the area to look for suspects (West, 2014). The police made sure that there was no any other shooter still roaming the mall. The police apprehended several suspects. In addition, the police conducted photo line-ups and interviewed several witnesses in a bid to figure out what happened. The Norfolk police immediately started a
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Video Game To Movie Cross Media Film Studies Essay Following the Teaser Show the benefits, its about selling your service. If the service allows them to win money this should be clear, if its of a narrative experience then the teaser, should have that inherent embedded into it. Reeling Them In- You need to constantly appeal to your audience and give a sense that your service is worth spending more time in. This is where meticulous planning of phased releases of story fragments across the media channels comes into its own. To some extent this is no different from a series editor/writer who has to arc each episodes narrative to keep them coming back for more. 2.2.4 Breaking the Fourth Wall Usually seen as an ad or end credit sequence where the voice over tells you why it is worth your while to carry on somewhere else with them. Breaks the fourth wall but is a clear directive. 2.2.5 Parallel Dimension There is something on another platform running synchronous to the one you are watching. Such as watching football on TV, while listening to Radio 5, because I prefer a more in-depth commentary. Now of course there are many other parallel channels. Web, mobile and TV all running along with each other. I am more and more involved with parallels between real and virtual worlds. The techniques to draw audiences into these experiences are often inherent in the service such that if you are on one you can actually see the other one taking place. 2.2.6 On Their Own The expectation from the audience that there will be other media elsewhere drives their journey through the story. The technique here is the hardest to identify but it follows the same technique of designing a physical hunt. You hide things, dont give easy clues and then set the ground rules. They expect something on all platforms and this is where the term cross-media will eventually become redundant. All properties will have something on all platforms, the same way DVDs now all have extras. If they have enjoyed cross-media experiences from you before they will come back. It is about trust, being consistent and giving them a media world to play in. 2.3 Franchise A franchise is a property which involves characters, settings and trademarks of original media. This can be a film, a piece of literature a TV program or a video game. Generally, a whole series is made in a particular medium, and multiple sequels are often planned well in advance. The most famous franchise to use Cross-Media Narrative is the Star Wars Saga, since its creation in 1977 it still expands its universe to the present day (2010). It consists of 6 feature films, and has since been extended, to more films, radio films, books, comic books, Animated TV series and also Video Games. Star Wars is an epic science fiction franchise conceived by George Lucas. It is best known for its 6 feature films, this consisted of two trilogies, the original trilogy and then the prequel trilogy. The first film in the series was originally released on May 25, 1977, by 20th Century Fox, and it became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon, the film spawned two immediate sequels, released at three-year intervals. Sixteen years after the release of the first trilogys final film, the first in a new prequel trilogy of films was released, again released at three-year intervals, with the final film released on May 19, 2005. Other Media, in which the Star Wars film series has spawned, includes books, a TV series, video games, and comic books. All of this supplements to the film trilogies and comprises the Star Wars Expanded Universe, which is an umbrella term for officially licensed Star Wars material outside of the six feature films and keeps the franchise going in the interim between the film trilogies. In 2008, a 7th film was released to theaters, Star Wars: The Clone Wars and it was the first ever worldwide theatrical Star Wars film outside of the main trilogies. It was the franchises first animated film, and was created as an introduction to the TV series Star Wars: The Clone Wars, a CGI animated series. Since the creation Star Wars in 1977, the franchise keeps on expanding and each type of media created still stays within the Star Wars timeline of events taking place anywhere from 25,000 years before Episode 1: The Phantom Menace to 140 years after Episode 6: Return of the Jedi. George Lucas retains artistic control over the Star Wars universe. For example, the death of central characters and similar changes in the status quo must first pass his screening before authors are given the go-ahead. In addition, Lucasfilm Licensing devotes efforts to ensure continuity between the works of various authors across companies. George Lucas has played a large role in the production of various television projects, usually serving as storywriter or executive producer, as mentioned in Pablo Hidalgos article From EU to Episode II: Aayla Secura. Star Wars has had a number of radio adaptations, such as A New Hope which was first broadcast on National public radio in 1981(StarWars.com 2010) Since the creation Star Wars in 1977, so many different types of media have been created, even now there is currently the idea of a Blu-ray release and 3D release of the trilogies, all of this keeps the Star Wars franchise alive. As you can see the Star Wars franchise is so huge and successful it is a prime example of how cross-media narrative is used and been effective. Other successful franchises are Indiana Jones, Batman, Superman, X-Men and others. Now is this purely for the viewers benefit or is it for financial profit for the studio. This is what I hope to find out. 3 Types of Cross-Media Currently the main types of cross-media are TV shows that have been made into films and also TV shows that have created webisodes. Also I will show films that have spawned video games and video game that have spawned films. I will cover all these topics in this section, giving examples of franchises that have expanded there universe, a quick example being how Batman has gone on to make films, video games, cartoons, TV series, comics etc. 3.1 TV Shows made into Films Now and then certain TV Shows, are that successful that Films are made from the series, a good example of this is Sex and the City, and also the series Police Squad which went on to make the Naked Gun Trilogy. Sex and the City Sex and the City is an American Television series. The original run of the show was broadcast on HBO from 1998 until 2004, for a total of ninety-four episodes. The show was set in New York City, and it focused on four American women, three of them in their mid-thirties and one in her forties. The series had multiple continuing story lines throughout episodes and seasons and it tackled socially relevant issues such as sexually transmitted diseases, safe sex, and promiscuity. It specifically examined the lives of big-city professional women in the late 1990s/early 2000s and how changing roles and expectations for women affected the characters. A feature film based on Sex and the City has been produced. The film originally was slated for production near the end of the broadcast series run in 2004, but the movie deal fell through at that time. The film was later released in 2008 and Michael Patrick King wrote and directed. The four lead actresses returned to reprise their roles, and Chris Noth signed to reprise his role as Mr. Big. The plot of the film revolves around the lives of the four main characters, four years after the time frame of the finale of the series. The films world premiere was in Londons Leicester Square in early May 2008. The film was released on May 28, 2008 in the UK and was released May 30, 2008 in the US with an unprecedented $55.7 million three-day gross. The debut made Sex and the City the top-opening R-rated romantic comedy of all time. Police Squad Police Squad! Was a comedy TV series which was first broadcast in 1982. The show was a spoof of police dramas, packed with visual gags and non sequiturs. Despite critical acclaim, the show was cancelled after just six episodes. However these 6 episodes were enough to gain a strong cult following through repeat broadcasts, and this led to the 1988 film version The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad! And two further sequels. Many gags from the show were recycled for the films (Roger Ebert 1988). The film The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad! Performing well at the box office, grossing around $78,756,177 (Box Office Mojo (n, d)).It became a hit comedy, it became so popular that two sequels were created The Naked Gun 2Ã ½: The Smell of Fear in 1991 and Naked Gun 33Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å": The Final Insult in 1994. The Naked Gun 2Ã ½: The Smell of Fear was considered the most successful of the three, grossing around $86,930,411(Box Office Mojo (n, d)), while Naked Gun 33Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å": The Final Insult grossed $51,132,598 (Box Office Mojo (n, d)). Roger Ebert rated the first movie 3 1/2 out of four stars, and gave 3 stars to the two following films. The second film won a Golden Screen award for Best Picture. The creators stated this in a featurette for The Naked Gun 2Ã ½: The Smell of Fear. 3.2 Films made into Video Games Most films when being created also make video games to accommodate the film. The story is usually similar to the film, we see this in James Camerons Avatar, but this is not always the case as film such as the Indiana Jones franchise, the video games tend to have their own story, just set in the same fictional universe. Avatar James Camerons Avatar is an epic science fiction film. The film is set in the year 2154, when humans are mining a precious mineral called unobtanium on Pandora, a lush moon of gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continued existence of a local tribe of Navi, a sentient humanoid species indigenous to Pandora. The films title refers to the genetically engineered Navi-human hybrid bodies used by a team of researchers to interact with the natives of Pandora. Ubisoft Montreal was chosen by James Cameron to create an Avatar game for the film in 2007. The filmmakers and game developers collaborated heavily, and James Cameron decided to include some of Ubisofts vehicle and creature designs into the film. James Camerons Avatar: The Game was released on December 1, 2009, for most home video game consoles. James Camerons Avatar: The Game is 2009 is a 3rd person action video game. Speaking in an interview with MCV, It was announced by Ubisoft that it will be using the same technology as the film to be displayed in stereoscopic 3D (PSU 2009) Indiana Jones Indiana Jones is a fictional character in the Indiana Jones franchise. The characters full name is Dr. Henry Walton Indiana Jones, Jr and first appeared in Raiders of the Lost Ark in 1981, is the first of four films, and pits Indiana Jones against the Nazis, who search for the Ark of the Covenant, in an attempt to make their army invincible. The film was to be followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in 1984, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in 1989, and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in 2008. Other than the films the Indiana Jones franchise has a TV series, novels, comics, video games, and other media. The character has appeared in many licensed video games the latest being Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings, which was released on June 9, 2009 Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings is the third in the series of original 3D Indiana Jones games, preceded by Indiana Jones and the Emperors Tomb, and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine. 3.3 Video Games made into Films When certain video games become increasingly popular there has always been speculation about making that game into a film. This is has happened with many games, such as Tomb Raider, Resident Evil, Hitman, Prince of Persia, and many others. The films may not always be true to the game but are usually a commercial success. One of the latest films that are under speculation to be made into a film is the PlayStation 3 game Uncharted. Tomb Raider Tomb Raider is a video game developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive. Tomb Raider follows the exploits of Lara Croft, an English female archaeologist in search of ancient treasures kind of like Indiana Jones. It was originally released in 1996 for the Sega Saturn followed shortly thereafter for MS-DOS and PlayStation versions. Since the release of the original in 1996, the series developed into a lucrative franchise of related media, and Lara went on to become a major icon of the video game industry. The game was commercially and critically successful, and is considered widely influential according to Gamespots article 15 most influential games of all time Gamespot (n. d.). It spawned a number of sequels and a franchise of related media. Six games in the series were developed by Core Design, and the latest three by Crystal Dynamics. To date two movies, Lara Croft: Tomb Raider and Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life, have been produced starring American actress Angelina Jolie as Lara Croft. Lara Croft: Tomb Raider is a 2001 adventure film which was an adaptation from the Tomb Raider video game series, as it didnt follow the same story as in the game but instead had an entirely new story. A sequel, Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life was released in 2003. Hitman Hitman is a stealth game developed by Danish company IO Interactive, now a division of Square Enix. The game series has since expanded into a novel, Hitman: Enemy Within and in 2007 a film was released loosely based on the storyline of the games. IESB has confirmed that 20th Century Fox has hired writer Kyle Ward to pen the script for the sequel to Hitman (IESB 2009) . Adrian Askarieh, Daniel Alter and Chuck Gordon will return as producers. Introducing British actor David Hess and Timothy Olyphant will return as 47 in June of 2010. 3.4 Films made into TV shows When a film has become really popular, it is often made into a TV show, to keep the story and the films universe alive. Star Wars has done this, with creating the animated TV series Star Wars: The Clone Wars. Also Terminator has done this, by creating Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles. Star Wars Star Wars is an epic space opera franchise, best known for its 6 feature films; this consisted of two trilogies, the original trilogy and then the prequel trilogy. In 2008, Star Wars: The Clone Wars was released, and it was the first ever worldwide theatrical Star Wars film outside of the main trilogies. It was the franchises first animated film, and was intended as an introduction to the series Star Wars: The Clone Wars, a 3D CGI animated series based on a previous 2D animated series of a similar name made in 2003. Star Wars: The Clone Wars is a 3D CGI animated television series. It is set in the fictional Star Wars Galaxy, during the same time period as the previous 2003 series. The show itself takes place from 22 BBY (Before the battle of Yavin) to 20 BBY. Each episode has a running time of 22 minutes, to fill a half-hour time slot. Season 2 premiered on October 2, 2009 and now Star Wars: The Clone Wars has been granted a third season, beginning in October 2010. Terminator The Terminator series is a science fiction franchise encompassing a series of films and ancillary media concerning battles between Skynets artificial intelligent machine network, and John Connors Resistance forces and the rest of the human race. The Terminator is the original film which was released in 1984. The film has been followed by three sequels. The franchise has evolved to one of the most successful franchises of all time (IGN 2006), which includes video games and a TV series. From the success of the franchise, a spin-off was created titled Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles with Lena Headey as Sarah Connor and Thomas Dekker as John Connor. The series, created by Josh Friedman, centers on Sarah and John after Terminator 2 as they try to live under the radar after the explosion at Cyberdyne. Summer Glau plays a female Terminator protecting the Connors. The series premiered on Sunday, January 13, 2008. Production for the series was provided by Terminator 2 and Terminator 3 producers and it consisted of 2 seasons. Season one with nine, 40 minute episodes, and Season two with twenty two, 40 minute episodes. The Terminator Franchise has had a measurable impact on popular culture, most notably James Camerons original films, The Terminator and Terminator 2: Judgment Day. The film franchise placed it at 17 on the top 25 greatest film franchises of all time by IGN and is also in the top 25 grossing franchises of all time. 3.5 TV Shows that have created Webisodes Many TV shows have made webisodes lately, these shows include, Heroes, Chuck, and The Office: An America Workplace. Heroes Heroes, is a science fiction TV drama series by Tim Kring that tells the stories of ordinary people who discover extraordinary abilities, and how these abilities take effect in the characters lives. The series emulates the aesthetic style and storytelling of Comic Books, using short, multi-episode story arcs that build upon a larger, more encompassing arc. Since its beginning there have now been 4 seasons and a number of webseries. The first Heroes webseries was released on July 14, 2008 between seasons 2 and 3, called Going Postal. It was a trilogy of online-only videos introducing Echo DeMille, a seemingly ordinary mailman with an extraordinary ability. On November 10, 2008 during Season 3, the second Heroes webseries, Destiny, was released. This webseries is a quadrilogy. A Month after the third Heroes webseries, The Recruit, was released on December 15, 2008. The Recruit introduces Rachel Mills, a marine who survives the explosion at Pinehearst. This follows the finale of volume three. Also in that month the fourth Heroes webseries, Hard Knox, was released. Hard Knox flashes back to 18 months ago, to a time when Matt Parkman knew the villain, Knox, before his abilities began to manifest. Following Hard Knox, Nowhere Man was released in April 2009, and it picked up where the third season leaves off, focusing on the life of Eric Doyle. Then on September 28, 2009, Slow Burn began airing alongside Season 4. It showed behind-the-scenes goings-on of the Sullivan Bros. Carnival as it follows the character of Lydia, revealing she has a pyrokinetic daughter named Amanda who she discovers is in trouble and tries to help. Chuck Chuck is an action-comedy television series created by Josh Schwartz and Chris Fedak. The show centers around the main character Chuck Bartowski an average computer-whiz-next-door, who receives an encoded e-mail from an old college friend now working in the CIA; the message embeds the only remaining copy of the worlds greatest spy secrets into Chucks brain. It currently has 3 seasons, and 3 webseries. It has Chuck Versus the Webisodes, which consists of 5 Buy More training videos. Meet the Nerd Herders, which also contains 5 webisodes, each video contains staff from the Buy More, giving their thoughts on specific topics. The third webseries is Morgans Vlog, which is a video blog, it has 4 parts, but the first 3 parts, are Morgan and Chuck on making a movie end a lot quicker, and the fourth episodes is Morgans view on movie villains. The Office: An American Workplace The Office: An American Workplace is an adaptation of the BBC series, The Office a Mockumentary created by Ricky Gervais and Stephan Merchant, the series depicts the everyday lives of office employees in the Scranton, Pennsylvania, branch of the fictional Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. To simulate the look of an actual documentary, it is filmed in a single-camera setup, without a studio audience or any canned laughter. There has currently been 6 webseries, the first being The Accountants which aired between the second and third seasons. The webisodes follow the accountants Angela, Oscar, and Kevin as they try to find out who stole $3,000 from the books. Between the fourth and fifth seasons, the summer webisode series Kevins Loan was released in four weekly episodes, the first premiering on July 10, 2008. Then during the airing of the fifth season, the winter webisode series The Outburst was released in weekly episodes, the first premiering on November 20, 2008. At the conclusion of the fifth season, the summer webisode series Blackmail was released similarly to the previous two, in weekly episodes. During the sixth season, the webisode series Subtle Sexuality aired in its entirety on October 29, 2009. The series focuses on Kelly and Erin forming their own girl group, called Subtle Sexuality. The first two webisodes document the behind-the-scenes aspects and troubles of shooting the music video for their first single Male Prima Donna, while the third and final webisode is the music video itself, which features Ryan as a guest rapper and Andy singing the bridge. Also during the sixth season, the webisode series The Mentor aired in its entirety on March 4, 2010. Erin wants to be an accountant so Angela decides to train her. But, Erins relationship with Kelly turns bad when she spends too much time with Angela. Kelly and Ryan then interfere in Angela and Erins relationship. 4 Financial Successes After seeing how many games are made into films and films are made into games, I wanted to see if financially it is a success. Is it worth expanding the franchise if the financial profit is not there? 4.1 Game to Film Tomb Raider Lara Croft: Tomb Raider Budget $115,000,000 Gross Revenue $274,703,340 (Box Office Guru 2001) Tomb Raider debuted at number one with $48.2 million, giving Paramount its second-best debut and the fourth-highest debut of 2001. It beat the opening record for a film featuring a female protagonist, and it is currently the most successful video game adaptation to date, grossing $300,000,000 worldwide. Cradle of Life Budget $120,000,000 Gross Revenue $156,505,388 Despite its better review, Cradle of Life suffered a disappointing opening weekend, as it debuted in fourth place with a take of $21.7 million (Box Office Mojo 2003) a 55% drop from the originals opening gross of $47.7 million (Box Office Mojo 2001). The film finished with a domestic gross of only $65 million; therefore it had to rely on the foreign box office to make a profit. Its total earnings amounted to $156.5 million, which represented a loss of $118 million when compared to the success of the original; the loss nearly equals the cost of Cradle of Lifes budget alone. Figures for the Tomb Raider movies come from the weekend box office websites, box office mojo and box office guru. Hitman Hitman Budget $23,000,000 Gross Revenue $99,965,792 Hitman opened in 2,458 theaters in the United States and Canada, grossing $13,180,769 in its opening weekend, ranking fourth at the box office. As of July 2, 2008, the film has grossed $39,687,694 (Box Office Mojo (n, d) in the United States and Canada and $60,245,563 in other territories for a worldwide total of $99,933,257. The films DVD sales equal $27,858,148 in the US alone, putting the total profits for Hitman at around $128 million. The figures established from the box office data, on the website the-numbers.com 4.2 Film to Game Avatar James Camerons Avatar videogame has not been as successful as the film; Ubisoft has sold over 1.3 million copies of the game worldwide across all platforms (GamerLive.TV 2010). According to Michael Pachter, video game analyst for webush securities, Ubisoft shipped 2.5 million copies of the game at launch. He also believes that with Blu-ray and DVD releases of the movie there could be another push for the game at retail. But for the most part, the game has sold what its going to sell. He said the poor reviews that Ubisofts game received hurt hardcore gamer sales. 5 Receptions The reception of films and video games has always been vital, as reviews can determine whether a film or game can be successful. I looked at reviews and I also did some user tests, to see if they get involved or not with cross-media so they can try to feel every part of that universe. 5.1 Reviews I shall look at reviews of the two Tomb Raider Films, Hitman film and Avatar: The Game. Tomb Raider (Films) Lara Croft: Tomb Raider The film received generally negative reviews, with rotten tomatoes giving it an approval rating of 19%, with 27 out of 140 critics giving it a positive review all with an average rating of 3.9/10 (Rotten Tomatoes (n, d)). The general consensus is Angelina Jolie is perfect for the role of Lara Croft, but even she cant save the movie from a senseless plot and action sequences with no emotional impact. An unlikely positive review came from Roger Ebert who awarded the film three out of four stars and said, Lara Croft Tomb Raider elevates goofiness to an art form. Here is a movie so monumentally silly, yet so wondrous to look at, that only a churl could find fault. It was controversial for its many objectionable plots like an evil thing in a Hindu temple and breaking statues of a World heritage site. Cradle of Life Cradle of Life received slightly higher reviews than the original, with a 23% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 151 reviews (Rotten Tomatoes (n, d)) and a 43/100 rating on Metacritic (Metacritic (n, d)). It was described by Salon as a highly enjoyable summer thrill ride (Salon 2003). Roger Ebert gave the film 3 out of four stars, stating that the film was better than the first one, more assured, more entertaining..it uses imagination and exciting locations to give the movie the same kind of pulp adventure feeling we get from the Indiana Jones movies (Roger Ebert 2003). Cradle of Life was as heavily panned as its predecessor. Wesley Morris of the Boston Globe wrote, Its a bullet-riddled National Geographic special that produces a series of dumb, dismal shootouts that are so woefully choreographed theres reason to believe Debbie Allen may be behind them (boston.com (n, d)). Hitman (Film) The Hitman film has been almost universally panned by critics. The most common complaints are a lacking, often confusing plot, dry acting and extreme violence. On the film review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, Hitman has received a rating of 14% based on 98 reviews (Rotten Tomatoes (n, d)). However, film critic Roger Ebert gave it three stars out of four, saying Hitman stands right on the threshold between video games and art. On the wrong side of the threshold, but still, give it credit. On the Metacritic website, the film has received a Metascore of 35 out of 100 based on 22 reviews (Metacritic (n, d)). In 2009, Time listed the film on their list of top ten worst video games movies (Time (n, d)). Avatar (Video Game) Avatar: The Game has received mixed reception. It has been criticized for the games linear gameplay and said its controls are unintuitive and camera sloppy. The Wii version received mediocre scores mostly, having poor camera angling, frame rate and storytelling, but visuals and controls were spoken well of. The PC version garnered a Metascore of 65 on Metacritic (Metacritic (n, d)). On IGN, the game received a score of 5.9 for Wii, and 6.8 for the other consoles (IGN (n, d)). It got a 5.5 on Gamespot for the PC, PS3 and Xbox 360 versions, while it got a 4.0 for the PSP edition (Gamespot (n, d)). In contrast, according to Meant to be Seen (MTBS), the PC version fared much better with a rating of 8.2 out of 10. Its rationale is PC stereoscopic 3D displays are readily available. The reviewer of MTBS said In a year or two when S-3D gaming is much more common, I really think Avatar: The Game will be a regularly cited example that demonstrates how things should be done and what the artistic potential is behind good 3D gaming (MTBS 2009). Also, Gamesradar.com gave the Wii version a score of 7 out of 10, saying, Youll love that the forest world is lush and nicely realized, fun stealth-focused combat, and an overall a surprisingly decent movie tie-in. However, the site also said that, Youll hate heaps of ugly clipping; control frustrations hamper its stealthy nature, and its repetitive goals (Gamesradar 2009) Indiana Jones (Video Game) Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings has received average reviews from the critics, Metacritic gave it an average of 55% (Metacritic (n, d)) The most universal criticism of the Wii version is the poorly implemented and only partially responsive motion controls. IGN gave it a 5.0/10 praising its interface, graphic effects, amount of extras, interactive levels, and varied gameplay, but criticizing its stupidly implemented motion controls(IGN 2009). The Origin (A.V. Club) gave it an F, a 0 on the Metacritic scale, calling the motion controls inexcusable and stating the games best aspect was the inclusion of the point-and-click adventure Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis, further adding it surpasses Staff of Kings in everything, but the Gamecube-like graphics. Gamespot gave it a 3.5/10, criticizing its terribly laid-out checkpoints, out-of-date visuals and atrocious, annoying motion controls (AV Club 2009). 5.2 User Test Next is my User test, I will first outline the test, then analyse the questionnaire. 5.2.1 Outline of test The test consists of a list of questions which will be about which films, games, TV shows, and webisodes, people have seen and if they have seen or played them, because they have seen or played the original game, film, TV show and webisodes, example if you have seen the Avatar film have you played the game. I will try to get 20 people to fill out the questionnaire, and I will then analyse the results. Appendix: 5.2.2 Analysis of Questionnaire After completing my testing, this was the list of my results from the questionnaire that were filled out. I list them in a table with a 1 representing you had seen or played the media, and a 0 representing that you havent. I made the table more visual by highlighting the majority people who had watched or played both types of media from the same franchise. I highlighted the people who had watched the most (more or equal to 7), in terms of 2 of the same franchise, and I also highlighted the franchises which had been seen or played the most (more or equal to 7) this gave me a cross section of which is cross-media works best and which age group it appeals to more. After completing the testing and analyses you can see that majority of the results point at TV shows who expand their franchise, and that it is mainly 22-24 year olds who who follow the franchise. The trend in the age range seems to be if they like a show, they will follow it in different media. I will compare this to reviews to see if it is coincidence or if the reviews are generally responsible for this kind of response. 5.3 Compare Reviews and User Test Comparing the reviews from section 5.1 I looked at with table of results I created I have come to the conclusion, that if the review is bad then more often than not the audience wont go to watch or play that medium. The only exception I came across was Tomb Raider, in which both film reviews were poor, an average of 3.1/10, it still did increasingly well at the box office. There is even talk o